The effect of motivation on self-efficacy of English department students with mediational effects of learning styles and learning strategies

Main Article Content

Salma El Haj
Mohamed Benhima


This study aims to investigate the effect of motivation on self-efficacy among English

department students with the mediating roles of learning styles and learning

strategies. A 5-point Likert scale questionnaire has been adopted from the

Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB), the Strategy Inventory for Language

Learning (SILL) Version 7.0, the Perceptual Learning Style Preference

Questionnaire (PLSPQ) and the Academic Self-Efficacy Scales were employed, and

109 students(N=109) took part in the current study. The sampling procedure adopted

is voluntary sampling. The questionnaire showed excellent alpha Cronbach's

reliability and KMO validity. The regression and mediation analysis conducted on

the collected data show a statistically significant positive impact of motivation on

self-efficacy through a meditation of learning styles and learning strategies.

Therefore, it is highly recommended for students, teachers, and administrators to

focus on motivation to increase self-efficacy.

Article Details

How to Cite
El Haj, S., & Benhima, M. (2024). The effect of motivation on self-efficacy of English department students with mediational effects of learning styles and learning strategies. The Journal of Quality in Education, 14(23), 61–91.


American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). DOI:

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. DOI:

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. W. H. Freeman.

Bárkányi, Z. (2021). Motivation, self-efficacy beliefs, and speaking anxiety in language MOOCs. ReCALL, 33(2), 142-158. DOI:

Bartlett, M. S. (1954). A note on the multiplying factors for various chi square approximation. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 16(Series B), 296-298. DOI:

Baumeister, R. F. (2016). Toward a general theory of motivation: Problems, challenges, opportunities, and the big picture. Motivation and Emotion, 40(1), 1-10. DOI:

Biggs, J. (2001). Enhancing learning: A matter of style or approach? In R. J. Sternberg & L. F. Zhang (Eds.), Perspectives on thinking, learning and cognitive styles (pp. 276-288). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cross, K. P., & Steadman, M. H. (1996). Classroom research: Implementing the scholarship of teaching. Jossey-Bass. DOI:

Dunn, R., & Dunn, K. (1978). Teaching students through their individual learning styles: A practical approach. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing Company.

Fidan, N. (1986). Learning and teaching at school, concepts, principles, methods. Kadıoğlu Publication.

Field, A. (2000). Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows. Sage Publications.

Gardner, R. C. (1985). The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery: Technical report. University of Western Ontario.

Garger, S., & Guild, P. (1984). Learning styles: The crucial difference. Curriculum Review, 23(1), 9-12.

Gumasing, Ma. J. J., & Castro, F. M. F. (2023). Determining ergonomic appraisal factors affecting the learning motivation and academic performance of students during online classes. Sustainability, 15(3), 1970. DOI:

Haswell, J. (2017). A close look at learning styles. Merrimack Scholar Works, 23, 1-9.

Hesline, P. A., & Klehe, U. C. (2006). Self-efficacy. In S. G. Rogelberg (Ed.), Encyclopedia of industrial/organizational psychology, Vol. 2 (pp. 705-708). Sage Publications.

Hinton, P. R., McMurray, I., & Brownlow, C. (2004). SPSS explained. Routledge. DOI:

Honicke, T., Broadbent, J., & Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M. (2020). Learner self-efficacy, goal orientation, and academic achievement: exploring mediating and moderating relationships. Higher Education Research & Development, 39(4), 689-703. DOI:

IBM Corp. (2020). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 29.0).

Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36. DOI:

Klassen, R. M., & Usher, E. L. (2010). Self-efficacy in educational settings: Recent research and emerging directions. The decade ahead: Theoretical perspectives on motivation and achievement, 16, 1-33. DOI:

Kunnathodi, F., & Ashraf, M. M. (2006). Academic self-efficacy scale. National Psychological Corporation.

Margolis, H., & Mccabe, P. P. (2006). Improving self-efficacy and motivation: What to do, what to say. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41(4), 218-227. DOI:

McCombs, B. L. (2017, April). Historical review of learning strategies research: strategies for the whole learner—A tribute to Claire Ellen Weinstein and early researchers of this topic. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 2, p. 6). Frontiers Media SA. DOI:

Nevid, J. S. (2018). Essentials of psychology: Concepts and applications (5th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Odabas, C. (2022). An analysis about the relationship between online homework and perceived responsibility, self-efficacy and motivation levels of the students. Pedagogical Research, 7(2). DOI:

Ortega-Torres, E., Solaz-Portoles, J.-J., & Sanjosé-López, V. (2020). Inter-relations among motivation, self-perceived use of strategies and academic achievement in science: A study with Spanish secondary school students. Sustainability, 12(17), 6752-6769. DOI:

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies and beyond: A look at strategies in the context of styles. In J. E. Alatis (Ed.), Shifting the instructional focus to the learner (pp. 35-55). Georgetown University Press.

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. New York: Newbury House.

Oxford, R. L. (2016). Teaching and researching language learning strategies: Self-regulation in context. Routledge. DOI:

Oxford, R. L., & Crookall, D. (1989). Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues. Modern Language Journal, 73(4), 404-419. DOI:

Pakdel, B. (2013). The Historical Context of Motivation and Analysis Theories: Individual Motivation. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(18), 240.

Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(3), 105-119. DOI:

Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 667-686. DOI:

Qureshi, M. A., Khaskheli, A., Qureshi, J. A., Raza, S. A., & Yousufi, S. Q. (2023). Factors affecting students’ learning performance through collaborative learning and engagement. Interactive Learning Environments, 31(4), 2371-2391. DOI:

Reid, J. M. (1984). Perceptual learning style preference questionnaire. Learning Styles Network.

Reid, J. M. (1995). Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom. Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

Srimulyani, V. A., & Hermanto, Y. B. (2022). Impact of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial motivation on micro and small business success for food and beverage sector in East Java, Indonesia. Economies, 10(1), 1-14. DOI:

Usman, O., & Tasya, S. (2020). The effect of e-learning, learning style, and learning interest on student’s learning motivation. SSRN Electronic Journal. DOI:

Weinstein, C. E., & Mayer, R. E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 315-327). Macmillan.

West, C. R., Kahn, J. H., & Nauta, M. M. (2007). Learning styles as predictors of self-efficacy and interest in research: Implications for graduate research training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1(3), 174–183. DOI:

Wu, H., Li, S., Zheng, J., & Guo, J. (2020). Medical students’ motivation and academic performance: the mediating roles of self-efficacy and learning engagement. Medical education online, 25(1), 1742964. DOI:

Most read articles by the same author(s)