Pupil-Teacher Ratio in ECE and its Influence on Graduation Rates in Integrated Embu County Public Primary Schools, Kenya

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Anastasia Kamwitha Muthanje


Pupil-teacher ratio in Early Childhood Education (ECE) is of principal significance in the teaching and learning process. The purpose of this study was directed at realizing how teacher-pupil ratio in ECE influences graduation rates, an aspect of internal efficiency.  The research was directed by correlation design and adopted stratified and simple random sampling techniques. A total of 39 public primary schools were sampled. From 39 selected schools 39 and 156 primary school headteachers and teachers respectively and 39 ECE teachers were sampled.  Information for the research was gathered by use of questionnaires, documentary analysis guide and observation schedule. SPSS and Pearson correlation was used to analyze data. Findings were presented in percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations.  Data analyzed showed positive correlation between pupil-teacher ratio and internal efficiency in public primary schools (r = .561, n= 37, p<.01). The study concluded that the pupil-teacher ratio was high in public primary schools which was 50:1 which exceeded the recommended ratio of 25:1.Therefore, there is need for the County government in collaboration with headteachers to deploy additional teachers in public primary schools in Embu County to offset the high pupil-teacher ratio. This will increase internal efficiency in terms of graduation rates to enhance successful transition to the next class.

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Kamwitha Muthanje, A. (2023). Pupil-Teacher Ratio in ECE and its Influence on Graduation Rates in Integrated Embu County Public Primary Schools, Kenya. The Journal of Quality in Education, 13(21), 106–120. https://doi.org/10.37870/joqie.v13i21.359


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